OSGeo Planet

Fernando Quadro: Live GeoCast #02: Big Data, Data Science e Open Data

OSGeo Planet - Mon, 2018-04-09 14:29

Prezados leitores,

Devido ao grande sucesso última live realizada a 2 semanas com grandes nomes do cenário GIS, resolvemos dar seguimento ao projeto com mais uma live e uma grande novidade: a criação do canal GeoCast Brasil no YouTube (clique aqui pra ver o vídeo de apresentação).

À próxima livre será realizada na próxima terça-feira, dia 10/04 às 20:30, e terá como tema “Big Data, Data science e Open Data: colocando os pingos nos ‘is’“.

Não percar essa oportunidade, realize já o seu agendamento através do vídeo abaixo.

E não esqueça de se inscrever no canal, e se puder ajudar a compartilhar e divulgar essa Live que ocorrerá amanhã!

Te espero lá!

Categories: OSGeo Planet

gvSIG Team: gvSIG aplicado a Medio Ambiente. Tema 4: Geoprocesos

OSGeo Planet - Mon, 2018-04-09 10:16

Ya tenéis disponible el Tema 4 del curso gratuito gvSIG aplicado a Medio Ambiente. En este tema conoceremos y aprenderemos a utilizar los geoprocesos vectoriales disponibles en la caja de herramientas de gvSIG.

imagen.pngEstamos ya en el ecuador del curso y aprender a manejar los geoprocesos nos permitirán pasar de un nivel básico a un nivel más avanzado de gvSIG, por lo que os animamos a participar y a aprender junto con el resto de compañeros y compañeras.

http://www.geoalternativa.com/gvsig-training/course/view.php?id=3&section=6

Además, en el foro de esta semana podréis compartir vuestras impresiones acerca del inicio de los SIG. Para ello tenéis disponible un enlace a un vídeo muy interesante sobre cómo eran los Sistemas de Información Geográfica en 1967.

Como siempre, si tenéis dudas, os animamos a escribir en la lista de usuari@s de gvSIG: http://osgeo-org.1560.x6.nabble.com/gvSIG-usuarios-f4118557.html

 

Categories: OSGeo Planet

PostGIS Development: PostGIS Patch Releases 2.2.7, 2.3.7, and 2.4.4

OSGeo Planet - Fri, 2018-04-06 00:00

The PostGIS development team is pleased to provide bug fix release 2.2.7, 2.3.7 and 2.4.4 for the 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4 stable branches.

Please note that PostGIS 2.2 is reaching end-of-life and there will be one more patch release later in the year for it. If you have not upgraded to at least PostGIS 2.3, we encourage you do so before we discontinue support for PostGIS 2.2.

View all closed tickets for 2.4.4, 2.3.7, 2.2.7.

After installing the binaries or after running pg_upgrade, make sure to do:

ALTER EXTENSION postgis UPDATE;

— if you use the other extensions packaged with postgis — make sure to upgrade those as well

ALTER EXTENSION postgis_sfcgal UPDATE; ALTER EXTENSION postgis_topology UPDATE; ALTER EXTENSION postgis_tiger_geocoder UPDATE;

If you use legacy.sql or legacy_minimal.sql, make sure to rerun the version packaged with these releases.

2.2.7

2.3.7

2.4.4

Categories: OSGeo Planet

Just van den Broecke: Emit #4 – Push or Pull?

OSGeo Planet - Thu, 2018-04-05 21:17

This is Emit #4, in a series of blog-posts around the Smart Emission Platform, an Open Source software component framework that facilitates the acquisition, processing and (OGC web-API) unlocking of spatiotemporal sensor-data, mainly for Air Quality and other environmental sensor-data like noise.

A lot of things have happened with the project since the last Emit #3 (feb 2018 already). The main news is that the SE Platform is now being migrated to the national Dutch GDI services infrastructure, PDOK. This infrastructure, entirely built with OSGeo software, is maintained by the Dutch Kadaster and already (since 2010) provides open access to Dutch geospatial datasets and -services including the Dutch INSPIRE access point. Having the SE Platform hosted and maintained within PDOK gives a tremendous opportunity for long-term evolution and stability beyond its initial project-based funding.

There’s lots of exciting new technological details related to this migration, like the move from the current ad-hoc Docker-based deployment to a full-fledged Kubernetes (K8s) Cloud roll-out. This could be the subject of an entire post by itself. For this we’re setting up a fresh GitHub organization, plus SE Docker Images via DockerHub. All work-in-progress but first results are already tangible.

So what’s this Push or Pull about? As announced in Emit #1, I’ll try to explain the SE architecture “by following the data”. So sensor data is acquired by sensor stations constantly, 24 hours a day, and lots of it. To give somewhat of a figure: within the SE project the Intemo Sensor Station “Josene” station provides more than 100 different sensor values, “indicators”. These range from meteo-data like Temperature, Humidity, Pressure, to Air Quality values for NO2 (Nitrogen Dioxide), CO2 (Carbon Dioxide), O3 (Ozone), finedust (PM) and audio/noise indicators (sound pressure) like Decibels (A) min/max/average for about 30 frequency bands (see image below).

Values for these about 100 indicators are sampled about every 20 seconds. Even with about one hundred Josene sensor stations currently one can imagine this will produce “a lot of data” to say the least. O yes, and we also like to keep all data, i.e. maintain history…Josene sensor-stations are connected via Wifi and will have to send their data to “somewhere”. Eventually, a user will need to view/consume sensor-data via an app, like the SmartApp (see image below), or web-services without being overwhelmed.

So how does the SE Platform deal with this potential tsunami of data? Well, the keywords are Buffering, Harvesting and Aggregation. Back to following the data. Each Josense sensor station will constantly push its data to what is called a Data Collector within the SE architecture. A Data Collector is basically a buffer (server) that will store bulk “timeseries” data for each station. Data is stored in bulk, i.e. not every sample is stored in an individual record but as blobs. The granularity is one blob per station/per day/per hour.  This already reduces data records to 24 blobs per day per station. A lot of storage but a reasonable number of records. Also remind: this is raw, unvalidated, unaggregated data. Best is to first show a picture from the global architecture as below.

Starting at the bottom of the picture above: Sensors send (push) their raw data to their attached Data Collector. Currently this even happens outside the SE Platform: the two Data Collectors from the left are maintained by our partners Intemo (Intemo Data Collector) and CityGIS (CityGIS Data Collector) within their own premises. In the course of the project we have been adding another Data Collector based on InfluxDB for the AirSensEUR. Also the RIVM SOS is viewed as a Data Collector for purposes of Calibration (for another Emit).

The important notice is that the SE Platform deploys Harvesters that constantly Pull the raw data from a series of Data Collectors. So this is where the Push/Pull decoupling is realized. For this (Pull) we have developed a simple Raw Sensor REST API nicknamed the Whale API. Each Data Collector exposes its buffered bulk data (history) as JSON Blobs via this very simple API, independent from its internal storage technology. One may ask: why all this unnecessary indirection? Basically, here we have the Push/Pull decoupling realized. This gave us many advantages:

  • Sensors only need “one IP-address to send to”
  • Data Collectors can be optimized for their purpose
  • The Whale API provides a thin interface while still allowing transfer of bulk data
  • The Whale API also provides “last/current” values, so a quick pass-through for near-realtime data
  • Harvesters can run at their own pace/schedule
  • The SE Platform can be deployed anywhere, in Test, Production phases and build-up its data
  • Development and testing can be done locally, on a development laptop even
  • Data Collectors provide bulk-data from “time zero” so when moving/migrating SE servers or re-architecting ETL or Calibration algorithms we can re-bootstrap from “time-zero”

More details can be found within the ever-evolving Smart Platform Technical documentation. As said, we are in the process of migration. Basically moving all software from a single SE GitHub repo at Geonovum to our new GitHub organization and SE DockerHub, so look into the latter for the current/upcoming status.

So within this Emit I tried to depict how sensor-data “gets into the platform without overwhelming it”. So the Harvesters keep on Harvesting, but what next? Like Neil Young sings in Harvest: “Dream up, dream up,
let me fill your cup. With the promise of a man.” That is, I promise a next Emit #5 on After The Goldrush, sorry After The Harvest.

 

Categories: OSGeo Planet

gvSIG Team: Lanzada la convocatoria del Premio JUST-Side

OSGeo Planet - Thu, 2018-04-05 10:14

¿Te interesa la Justicia Territorial? ¿Vas a hacer una tesis de graduación, maestría o doctorado?¿Te gusta investigar y escribir?

Desde JUST-Side ponemos en marcha este concurso que se enmarca entre los objetivos de la red CYTED a la que pertenece la Asociación gvSIG.

Pueden concurrir estudiantes o investigadores de cualquier área científica que tengan como tema de investigación la reflexión o análisis de injusticias territoriales de base socioambiental, a partir de información territorial, ambiental o social, orientado a la mejora de las políticas públicas: derecho, ciencias políticas, geomática, geografía,…

Atentos a las fechas, el plazo límite de envío de los trabajos el 30 de septiembre de 2018.

Por su interés, os pedimos que nos ayudéis a difundir esta iniciativa en el mayor número posible de universidades.

Más información en: https://justside123.wixsite.com/esjustside

Y si para vuestros trabajos necesitáis utilizar un Sistema de Información Geográfica y no tenéis conocimientos previos, podéis aprovechar el curso gratuito de gvSIG Desktop para medio ambiente que ofrecemos.

Os dejamos con el vídeo de la convocatoria:

Categories: OSGeo Planet

Petr Pridal: Maps and GDPR: privacy for your visitors

OSGeo Planet - Thu, 2018-04-05 09:00

As of 25th May 2018, new EU regulation harmonizing data protection across the member states will come into force. The General Data Protection Regulation, commonly abbreviated as GDPR, will enhance the digital rights of EU citizens at the cost of a strict data protection compliance regime. The GDPR applies to all companies and institutions, regardless of their size, inside and outside of the EU, who are working with personal data of EU citizens.

How to prepare your organization

The new set of digital rights for EU citizens guaranteed by GDPR means a preparation of companies and organizations handling any kind of personal data, which is any information related to the natural person or data subject that can be used to identify the person directly or indirectly. This doesn’t only mean full name, photo and home address, but also things like IP address, email or even cookie if it can be used to identify the person.

For companies which are already respecting privacy and handling data in compliant with current legislation, GDPR means just a minor modification of current processes. As the information systems are becoming more complex and the flow of information is increasing, you can miss some details, which are not core to your business. Such an example is a map included in your web page or integrated into your mobile app. However, you are still responsible for all the data being collected and processed according to the GDPR.

The penalty can get up to €20 million, or 4% annual global turnover — whichever is greater.

If you haven’t started yet, you should take an action. Prepare yourself by taking these steps:

  1. Collect, store and process only personal data you really need. Collecting data for advertising purposes is acceptable (if other conditions are fulfilled), saving individuals’ personal data “because maybe they can be useful somehow one day” is not.
  2. Make sure you have informed consent for all personal data you are working with. If not, try to obtain it additionally. To stay on the safe side, double opt-in is a best practice. Make also sure users have a chance to revoke the consent.
  3. Have a process for handing over the data to the client if you are requested, updating them if they are out-dated and you are asked to do and to delete all unnecessary personal data you hold or to stop processing them.
  4. Build new project with security by design. For current ones, make sure the personal data are secured to the highest level you can achieve as a company or organization.
  5. If your security fails and there is a security incident which involves your clients’ personal data, have a process to inform affected people within 72 hours.

While most of the changes within an organization need to be done in internal processes, you also should make a revision and modifications on the software side if needed.

If you take these steps seriously and not just as a box-ticking exercise, it can have a positive effect on your organization. Organizing your data doesn’t just give you tidiness feeling, but also increase efficiency whenever someone has to work with them. Reduction of data can also be a positive thing as according to the study 85% of data stored in companies is redundant. And if you take your users’ privacy really seriously and stop provide the information about them to third parties, your business privacy will increase as well, because along with it you will also send out information about your business.

Underestimating the preparation and ignoring the rules will not just have a negative effect on your business reputation, but your bank account as well: the penalty can get up to €20 million, or 4% annual global turnover — whichever is greater.

Self-hosted maps are the solution

While many seek cloud services as their salvation, in case of a security issue, both parties partake in a shared responsibility. Moreover, with even a small piece of code inserted in your web or product, which is tracking your users, you are exposing an information about your business. The flow, composition and other information are gold valued, especially in the tech business.

While self-hosting a world map can be seen as a high-tech task for a skilled technician, in fact with OpenMapTiles maps it is a 10 minutes clicking job. To guarantee the security, the source code is available for an inspection. Only with a self-hosted solution you have fully under the control who is coming, what personal data are being collected, what is happening with them and guarantee you are 100% GDPR compliant.

Our map hosting respects the end-users privacy

Those who don’t have enough resources or don’t want to bother with self-hosting a map should search for a safe digital partner. While there are providers which claim to have a free-of-charge service, the price you are paying is your clients’ and business’ data. The free in their case means collecting and processing a massive amount of data and selling it out, mainly by targeted advertisement.

With MapTiler Cloud map hosting service, you can be sure your clients’ data are not being misused, simply because we do not collect any personal information. Our map services have no geolocation tracking code and we are not making a telemetry. Our services respect privacy by design and are built and maintained by the highest security standard. All the traffic between our servers and end-users is encrypted by HTTPS. 

With the core data centers in the EU, secure infrastructure, transparent business model, you can trust MapTiler Cloud map hosting service as a safe digital GDPR compliant partner.

Categories: OSGeo Planet

gvSIG Team: Nueva edición concurso gvSIG Batoví 2018

OSGeo Planet - Wed, 2018-04-04 15:22

Leemos en el blog de gvSIG Batoví que se lanzá una nueva edición del concurso gvSIG Batoví, que ya el año pasado nos maravilló con los elaborados e imaginativos proyectos que presentaron los alumnos de secundaria.

Como primera del fase del concurso se celebrará la 2ª edición del mini curso-taller “Capacitación en el uso de gvSIG Batoví“, para el que las inscripciones ya están abiertas, y que cuenta con el respaldo de la Asociación gvSIG.

Para saber más: https://www.ceibal.edu.uy/es/articulo/mini-curso-taller-gvsig-batovi

Aprovechamos para felicitar al proyecto Ceibal por la iniciativa y animamos a otros países a replicar la experiencia que está desarrollándose en Uruguay.

Categories: OSGeo Planet

gvSIG Team: OpenGeoFiction: fictitious maps in gvSIG Desktop

OSGeo Planet - Wed, 2018-04-04 11:36

We are going to show a curiosity for fictitious maps lovers. OpenGeoFiction is a project based on the OpenStreetMap platform aimed to create a fictitious world. Seas, rivers, cities, countries… a virtual world that grows every day. Therefore, OpenGeoFiction is a world created collaboratively and free by a community…, that can be available on our gvSIG Desktop. 

We can add the OpenGeoFiction map service through the ‘OSM’ tab, inside the ‘Add layer’ window, using the following parameters:

Once the server has been added among the available ones, we can add it as a layer to our gvSIG Desktop View. We have to take into account that the view must be in EPSG: 3857, which is the projection used by this  world of fiction.

Categories: OSGeo Planet

gvSIG Team: OpenGeoFiction: Mapas ficticios en gvSIG Desktop

OSGeo Planet - Wed, 2018-04-04 08:12

Hoy os traemos una curiosidad para los amantes de los mapas ficticios. OpenGeoFiction es una proyecto basado en la plataforma de OpenStreetMap orientado a la creación de un mundo ficticio. Mares, ríos, ciudades, países…todo un mundo virtual que crece día a día. OpenGeoFiction, por tanto, es un mundo creado de forma colaborativa y libre por una comunidad…y que podemos tener disponible en nuestro gvSIG Desktop.

Podemos añadir el servicio de mapas de OpenGeoFiction mediante la pestaña de ‘OSM’, dentro de la ventana de ‘Añadir capa’, utilizando los siguientes parámetros:

Una vez añadido el servidor entre los disponibles ya podemos añadirlo como capa a nuestra Vista de gvSIG Desktop. Una última nota, la Vista debe estar en EPSG: 3857, que es la proyección que utiliza este mundo de ficción.

Categories: OSGeo Planet

Jackie Ng: Announcing: mg-desktop and MapGuide nuget packages for 3.1.1

OSGeo Planet - Tue, 2018-04-03 17:55
It's been so long since putting out the last release of MapGuide that you sometimes forget that there are also supplemental build artifacts that tail off of the main MapGuide build process that need to be released as well!

In our case, that would be new nuget packages for the MapGuide .net API and mg-desktop.

The new mg-desktop binaries are also available as plain zip packages, should the NuGet way of acquiring not work out for you.
Categories: OSGeo Planet

Blog 2 Engenheiros: Como definir pontos de amostragem utilizando QGIS e ArcGIS

OSGeo Planet - Tue, 2018-04-03 06:16

Quando trabalhamos com solos, precisamos amostrar grandes áreas para determinar a qualidade dele e indicar a quantidade de insumos agrícolas (por exemplo, fertilizantes e calcário).

Para isso, é definido a área de interesse e distribuímos, na forma de grade ou aleatoriamente, diversos pontos igualmente espaçados. Dando inicio, assim, ao nosso plano de amostragem.

Lembre-se que há situações onde amostras compostas são aceitas (exemplo, fertilidade do solo), enquanto para análise de contaminantes no solo, amostras simples são recomendadas.

Como distribuir esses pontos de forma rápida e dar inicio às coletas?

Podemos realizar esse trabalho utilizando algumas ferramentas como o QGIS ou o ArcGIS. Aqui, vamos mostrar como utilizar os dois softwares.

-- Sumário -- Como criar (manualmente) pontos no QGIS Criando Pontos Aleatórios no QGIS Criando Grade de Pontos no QGIS Como criar (manualmente) pontos no ArcGIS Criando Pontos Aleatórios no ArcGIS Criando Grande de Pontos no ArcGIS Como criar pontos no QGIS

Antes de mostrar as ferramentas dos programas de SIG, é interessante que você saiba como criar pontos manualmente. Vamos iniciar nosso tutorial com o QGIS (2.18).

Note que o procedimento para criar pontos é semelhante ao de criação de polígonos, afinal, ambos são shapefiles.

Para criar uma nova camada shapefile, no menu superior do QGIS, clique em Camada > Criar Camada > Shapefile (conforme figura abaixo). Uma nova janela irá aparecer solicitando os dados do shapefile a ser criado.

Como criar um shapefile no QGISComo criar um shapefile no QGIS

A criação de shapefiles também pode ser realizada pelo seguinte atalho no teclado Ctrl+Shift+N.

Na nova janela aberta, selecione como Tipo o item Ponto, e vamos ver cada um dos itens que podemos modificar.

  • Codificação do arquivo (File Enconding): Conjunto de dados para representar os caracteres utilizados – Quando algumas letras não aparecem no QGIS, um dos problemas pode ser a codificação;
  • Sistema de Referência: SAD69? SIRGAS2000? Qual será o sistema de coordenadas dos seus pontos (aconselhamos a utilizar o SIRGAS2000, pois é o sistema oficial do Brasil);
  • Novo campo (New Field): Adiciona itens na tabela de atributos do nosso shapefile, neste tutorial, cada campo estará associado à cada ponto criado (aqui, criamos um campo chamado nome, do tipo Texto, com comprimento de 25 caracteres);
Campos a serem preenchidos para criação de shapefile no QGIS.Campos a serem preenchidos para criação de shapefile no QGIS.

 

Após esse procedimento, clique em OK. Em seguida, o QGIS irá perguntar onde você quer salvar o shapefile.

Note que o shapefile criado esta vazio, ou seja, não há nenhum ponto adicionado.

Para criar uma nova feição (um ponto), selecione o shapefile de pontos criado e clique sobre o lápis amarelo no menu de edição (ou você pode clicar sobre o shape e buscar o item Alternar Edição / Toggle Edition).

Menu de Edição de Shapefiles do QGISMenu de Edição de Shapefiles do QGIS

Quando você ligar a edição, as outras ferramentas do menu de edição ficarão acessas. Entre as novas opções disponíveis, esta a Adicionar Feição (Add Feature), ao lado do ícone utilizado para salvar as modificações.

O menu de edição irá mudar suas figuras conforme o tipo de shape (ponto, linha, polígono) que esta sendo editado.

Clique sobre o botão para adicionar feição e você poderá clicar sobre o mapa e adicionar, livremente, novos pontos.

Ao adicionar um ponto, o QGIS irá lhe perguntar os dados deste ponto, no nosso caso, será o id e o nome do ponto, para serem adicionados na tabela de atributos.

E dessa forma, você vai inserindo os pontos de amostragem e quando finalizar, salve as modificações do shapefile clicando sobre botão Salvar Edição da Camada (Save Layer Edits). E finalize a edição clicando novamente sobre o lápis amarelo.

Esse procedimento pode ser útil quando temos uma área pequena e poucos pontos para serem amostrados. Mas imagine se tivermos que colocar mais de cinquenta pontos?

Muito trabalhoso, considerando que há ferramentas que podem nos auxiliar.

Criando Pontos Aleatórios no QGIS

Para criar nossos pontos aleatórios, precisamos antes definir uma área de estudo, neste tutorial vamos utilizar o limite estadual de Santa Catarina, disponível no site do IBGE (clique aqui para baixá-lo).

Ou se você preferir, pode conferir nosso tutorial de como criar um polígono no QGIS e delimitar sua área de estudo.

Vamos adicionar nosso shape do estado de Santa Catarina e vamos acessar a janela Toolbox (Caixa de Ferramentas) que esta disponível no menu superior do QGIS, especificamente no item Processing (Processar).

Você pode acessar o Toolbox usando o atalho Ctrl+Alt+T.

A nova janela aberta demonstrará diversos algoritmos e ferramentas para executar diferentes tarefas, sendo que no topo, há uma caixa para procurar a ferramenta desejada.

Procure por “Random Points” (Pontos Aleatórios em Inglês)(1) e depois clique na opção Random Points in Layer Bounds (2), ou seja, pontos aleatórios nos limites de uma camada.

Uma nova janela será aberta.

Como criar pontos aleatórios no QGIS.Como criar pontos aleatórios no QGIS.

Nesta janela, defina a área onde você quer criar seus pontos (3), quantos pontos você deseja criar (4), distância mínima entre os pontos (5) e onde o arquivo gerado será salvo (6). Por fim, clique em Run.

Cuidado com o item “Distância mínima entre pontos”, dependendo do sistema de coordenadas, teremos unidades diferentes (geográfica em graus e projetada em metros).

Após esse procedimento, você terá seus pontos distribuídos na sua área de interesse, sendo que, seguindo nosso tutorial, você vai ter algo semelhante à imagem abaixo.

Pontos aleatórios distribuídos em Santa Catarina.Pontos aleatórios distribuídos em Santa Catarina. Criando Grade de Pontos no QGIS

Agora, se o seu interesse é criar uma grade (regular) de pontos, você deverá pesquisar no Toolbox do QGIS por “Regular Points” e depois abrir a ferramenta com o mesmo nome.

Na janela que irá abrir, você terá que alimentar os seguintes parâmetros:

  • Input extent (xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax): Retângulo indicando as coordenadas iniciais e finais da grade, pode ser inserido um shape, clicando no botão ao lado da caixa do parâmetro e selecionando “Use layer/canvas extent”;
  • Point spacing/count: Espaçamento entre os pontos. Aqui, lembre-se do sistema de coordenadas, pois coordenadas geográficas estão em graus e as projetadas em metros;
  • Initial inset from corner (LH side): Espaçamento utilizado para a primeira linha de pontos;
  • Regular points: Local onde será salvo a grade de pontos gerada.

A imagem abaixo mostra os dados que utilizamos neste tutorial.

Como criar uma grade regular de pontos no QGIS.Como criar uma grade regular de pontos no QGIS.

Perceba que os pontos criados ultrapassam a extensão do estado de Santa Catarina, mas toda a área de estudo contém pontos da nossa grade.

Para recortar a grade de pontos, busque no Toolbox por “Clip” e você encontrará a ferramenta do mesmo nome, Clip. Ao clicar sobre ela, uma nova janela irá abrir e será solicitado os seguintes itens:

  • Input layer: Camada que será recortada (no nosso caso, nosso shape de pontos regulares);
  • Clip layer: Camada que será utilizada como molde para recorte (no caso, a nossa área de estudo);
  • Clipped: Local onde será salvo o novo shapefile de pontos.

Após todos esses procedimentos, você terá uma grade de pontos dentro do estado de Santa Catarina, conforme figura abaixo.

Grade de pontos criada dentro da área de interesse no QGIS.Grade de pontos criada dentro da área de interesse no QGIS.

Gostou do Tutorial? Assine nossa lista de email para receber nosso eBook “Como inserir pontos em linhas no QGIS 2.18” e crie seus planos de amostragem em qualquer rio, córrego, riacho, transecto ou estrada.

Como criar pontos no ArcGIS

No ArcGIS, podemos criar um shapefile de três formas diferentes:

  • Desenho (Ferramenta Drawing);
  • ArcToolbox;
  • ArcCatalog.

Neste tutorial, iremos focar na terceira (ArcCatalog), por ser a mais parecida com a utilizada no QGIS.

O ArcCatalog é o gerenciador de arquivos do ArcGIS, onde é possível criar, editar e deletar seus arquivos, facilitando a organização do seu projeto.

Para abrir o ArcCatalog, no menu superior do ArcMap, clique em Windows e em seguida selecione Catalog. Uma nova janela irá aparecer.

Janela do ArcCatalog (ou Catalog)Janela do ArcCatalog (ou Catalog).

Nas duas primeiras pastas, você poderá navegar pelos seus arquivos do Windows e localizar onde você quer salvar seu shapefile de pontos.

Clique com o botão direito sobre a pasta (que você escolheu) e selecione New, em seguida, busque Shapefile. Uma nova janela será aberta solicitando o nome do shapefile e o tipo (ponto, linha, polígono).

E não se esqueça de definir o sistema de coordenadas (utilize o SIRGAS2000, pois ele é o sistema oficial no Brasil).

Como criar um shapefile no ArcGISComo criar um shapefile no ArcGIS.

Verifique se a sua ferramenta Editor esta ligada, para isso, no menu superior, vá em Customize > Toolbars > Editor.

Na barra de ferramento do Editor, clique sobre Editor e selecione Start Editing (1). Em seguida, clique em Create Features (2) e na nova janela (3), escolha o shapefile que você deseja editar e escolha na parte inferior da janela a feição que você quer criar (4).

Como criar uma nova feição no ArcGISComo criar uma nova feição no ArcGIS.

Agora, basta ir clicando no mapa e definir a localização dos pontos, sendo que após inserir todos os pontos, você deve salvar as edições (Save Edits) e finalizá-las (Stop Editing).

Mas isso é muito trabalhoso, especialmente se tivermos mais de cem pontos! Por isso, há ferramentas que facilitam nosso trabalho.

Criando Pontos Aleatórios no ArcGIS

Para criar nossos pontos aleatórios, vamos precisar definir uma área de estudo, neste tutorial vamos utilizar o limite do estado de Santa Catarina, disponível no site do IBGE (clique aqui para baixá-lo).

Ou se você preferir, pode conferir nosso tutorial de como criar um polígono no ArcGIS e delimitar sua área de estudo.

Após adicionar o shapefile do limite do estado de Santa Catarina, vá em ArcToolbox > Data Management Tools > Feature Class e clique sobre Create Random Points.

Uma nova janela será aberta e você precisará informar os seguintes parâmetros:

  • Output Location: Pasta onde será salvo o shapefile de pontos;
  • Output Point Feature Class: Nome do shapefile de pontos a ser criado;
  • Constraining Feature Class: Shapefile que irá determinar o limite de criação dos pontos, no nosso caso é o limite do estado de SC;
  • Number of points: Número de pontos a serem criados;
  • Minimum Allowed Distance: Distância mínima permitida entre os pontos;
Como criar pontos aleatórios no ArcGISComo criar pontos aleatórios no ArcGIS

Cuidado com o item “Distância mínima permitida”, dependendo do sistema de coordenadas, teremos unidades diferentes (geográfica em graus e projetada em metros).

O resultado desta ferramenta é apresentado na figura abaixo.

Resultado da distribuição de pontos aleatórios no ArcGIS.Resultado da distribuição de pontos aleatórios no ArcGIS. Criando Grade de Pontos no ArcGIS

A criação de grades de pontos no ArcGIS é semelhante à criação de pontos aleatórios, inclusive, as ferramentas encontram-se no mesmo Toolbox (ArcToolbox > Data Management Tools > Feature Class), sendo o nome dela Create Fishnet.

Nesta ferramenta, você irá inserir os seguintes dados:

  • Output Feature Class: Nome e localização dos shapefiles a serem criados;
  • Template Extent: Extensão/limites da grade a ser criada (ao colocar o limite da área de estudo, os parâmetros abaixo deste item serão preenchidos automaticamente);
  • Cell Size Width e Cell Size Height: Comprimento e altura das células que serão criadas;
  • Number of Rows e Number of Columns: Número de Linhas e Colunas a serem criadas;
  • Create Label Points: Mantenha essa opção ligada, pois é ela que irá criar nossa grade de pontos.

Se você preencher o comprimento e altura das células, pode deixar a opção número de linhas e colunas zeradas. O caminho inverso também é válido.

Note que o ArcGIS cria uma grade com linhas e no meio dos quadrados criados, são colocados pontos, ou seja, o resultado dessa operação é um shape com pontos e outro com linhas.

Veja que os pontos (assim como no QGIS) também ultrapassam nosso limite definido. Para manter somente os pontos dentro da área de estudo, vamos utilizar a ferramenta Clip, disponível em: ArcToolbox > Analysis Tools > Extract > Clip.

Na ferramenta Clip, você irá inserir o shapefile que será recortado (Input Features), o polígono que será utilizado para recortar (Clip Features) e onde o resultado será salvo (Output Feature Class).

O resultado é apresentado na imagem abaixo.

Grade regular de pontos criada no ArcGIS, após recorte.Grade regular de pontos criada no ArcGIS, após recorte.

E com isso, chegamos ao final do nosso tutorial. Agora você já sabe como distribuir pontos dentro de uma área de interesse e já pode planejar como serão realizadas as suas amostragens.

Qualquer dúvida ou dificuldade, utilize os comentários desta postagem para podermos te ajudar.

Gostou do Tutorial? Assine nossa lista de email para receber nosso eBook “Como inserir pontos em linhas no QGIS 2.18” e crie seus planos de amostragem em qualquer rio, córrego, riacho e transectos.

Categories: OSGeo Planet

Jackie Ng: Announcing: MapGuide Open Source 3.1.1

OSGeo Planet - Tue, 2018-04-03 00:02
I am pleased to announce the final release of MapGuide Open Source 3.1.1

The only changes from the Release Candidate are:
  • A fix in the AJAX viewer to prevent clicks in interactive tooltip content from falling through (possibly accidentally triggering map selections as a result).
  • Permission fixes for the windows installer and linux install scripts so that the Fusion QuickPlot widget can work out of the box.
Download/Release Notes
Categories: OSGeo Planet

gvSIG Team: gvSIG aplicado a Medio Ambiente. Tema 3: Edición gráfica

OSGeo Planet - Mon, 2018-04-02 10:00

Ya está activado el Tema 3 del curso gratuito “gvSIG aplicado a Medio Ambiente: Edición gráfica” que podéis encontrar en http://www.geoalternativa.com/gvsig-training/

imagen_1.png

Durante esta semana aprenderemos a digitalizar información geográfica, a crear y editar capas vectoriales, conoceremos las herramientas disponibles para insertar elementos de dibujo en el mapa, y cómo modificar la información y editarla una vez que está creada.

Además también veremos cómo configurar las propiedades de edición para optimizar nuestra tarea de edición.

En este módulo sólo hay un documento de lectura, pero la práctica es larga, así que os recomendamos empezar desde el inicio de la semana con el Ejercicio_T3  poder contar con la ayuda de l@s compañer@s y facilitadores.

Como siempre, si tenéis alguna duda, podéis expresarla en la lista de usuari@s: http://osgeo-org.1560.x6.nabble.com/gvSIG-usuarios-f4118557.html

Categories: OSGeo Planet

Free and Open Source GIS Ramblings: Optional parameters in QGIS Processing scripts & models

OSGeo Planet - Sun, 2018-04-01 17:44

Remember the good old times when all parameters in Processing were mandatory?

Inputs and outputs are fixed, and optional parameters or outputs are not supported. [Graser & Olaya, 2015]

Since QGIS 2.14, this is no longer the case. Scripts, as well as models, can now have optional parameters. Here is how for QGIS 3:

When defining a Processing script parameter, the parameter’s constructor takes a boolean flag indicating whether the parameter should be optional. It’s false by default:

class qgis.core.QgsProcessingParameterNumber( name: str, description: str = '',  type: QgsProcessingParameterNumber.Type = QgsProcessingParameterNumber.Integer,  defaultValue: Any = None,  optional: bool = False,  minValue: float = -DBL_MAX+1, maxValue: float = DBL_MAX)

(Source: http://python.qgis.org/api/core/Processing/QgsProcessingParameterNumber.html)

One standard tool that uses optional parameters is Add autoincremental field:

From Python, this algorithm can be called with or without the optional parameters:

When building a model, an optional input can be assigned to the optional parameter. To create an optional input, make sure to deactivate the mandatory checkbox at the bottom of the input parameter definition:

Then this optional input can be used in an algorithm. For example, here the numerical input optional_value is passed to the Start values at parameter:

You can get access to all available inputs by clicking the … button next to the Start values at field. In this example, I have access to values of the input layer as well as  the optional value:

Once this is set up, this is how it looks when the model is run:

You can see that the optional value is indeed Not set.

References

Graser, A., & Olaya, V. (2015). Processing: A Python Framework for the Seamless Integration of Geoprocessing Tools in QGIS. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4, 2219-2245. doi:10.3390/ijgi4042219.

Categories: OSGeo Planet

gvSIG Team: Corrección de ficheros SHP con errores en gvSIG Desktop

OSGeo Planet - Thu, 2018-03-29 11:30

Desde la versión 2.3 de gvSIG, cuando una capa SHP tiene geometrías corruptas se carga en la tabla de contenidos pero no en la Vista, pero podemos tener la opción de corregir dicha capa. Uno de los motivos es que si se cargase la capa con geometrías erróneas, y el usuario editase la capa, al guardar la edición con esos errores podría tener problemas y llegar a perder datos. Para evitar esto se ha optado por cargarla en el ToC pero no cargar las geometrías, y avisar al usuario.

Si tras agregar la capa en la Vista vemos que se añade en el ToC pero está desactivada y marcada con un signo de exclamación rojo, y nos aparece un mensaje de error en la parte inferior izquierda de la pantalla, es señal de que es una capa con errores.

Puede ocurrir el caso que se haya cargado la capa inicialmente sin problemas en la vista, pero al no leerse todos los registros no haya saltado el error, y que realizando alguna operación posterior (puede ser simplemente un zoom) detecte la geometría corrupta y se desactive la capa, mostrando el signo de exclamación rojo.

Para poder ver los detalles del error pondremos la capa activa, y con el botón secundario del ratón seleccionaremos “Ver errores”.

En la nueva ventana que se abre podemos tener información sobre qué geometrías están corruptas, con un mensaje similar a este: “There were errors loading the feature ‘x’ from ‘[nombre_capa]’”, donde “x” será el número de geometría (debemos tener en cuenta que la primera geometría es la “0”), y “nombre_capa” será el nombre de nuestra capa.

En dicha ventana también nos indicará el tipo de error que es, y qué deberemos hacer . Los errores pueden estar relacionados por ejemplo con el número de vértices de una línea o un polígono, si tenemos una línea con un solo vértice o un polígono con dos, algo que no es correcto. En ese caso veremos un mensaje similar a este: “Invalid number of points in LinearRing (found 3 – must be 0 or >= 4).”

También nos puede dar instrucciones de si es posible solucionarlo. Por ejemplo nos puede aparecer el mensaje “Check ‘Fix LinearRings and LineStrings’ in the shape’s properties of the add layer dialog to try fix it.”.

Si nos saliese dicho mensaje, para intentar corregir la capa, desde la ventana anterior accederemos a sus propiedades pinchando en el botón inferior “_View_properties_of_data_source” (o su correspondiente traducción).

Nota: De momento en las versiones 2.3 y 2.4 esta opción está solo disponible para ficheros .SHP. Para el resto de formatos vectoriales habrá que eliminar la capa de la vista y agregarla de nuevo, y entrar en sus propiedades accediendo desde la ventana de añadir capa.

En las propiedades de la capa iremos entonces a la pestaña “Advanced” y haremos lo que indicaba el mensaje de error.

Tendremos varias formas posibles de intentar solucionar el error.

Corrección de las geometrías cuando tienen menos puntos de los necesarios

Si en el mensaje de error nos ha indicado qué geometría estaba corrupta, y nos decía que marcásemos la opción “Fix LinearRings and LineStrings”, en la pestaña “Advanced” lo marcaremos, y aceptaremos, y ya en la vista pincharemos con el botón secundario sobre la capa activa y le daremos a “Recargar”. De esa forma veremos ya los elementos de la capa en la vista, y en las geometrías que tenían menos puntos de los necesarios se añadirán vértices duplicados al final de estas.

Corrección de las geometrías con otro tipo de error

Si hemos corregido una geometría que tenía menos puntos de los necesarios, hemos comentado que gvSIG duplica los puntos necesarios para que la geometría se cargue bien, pero tras arreglarse automáticamente puede seguir siendo un polígono de tres puntos donde dos de ellos coinciden por ejemplo. En ese caso podemos querer saber por qué tenía error dicha geometría y corregirlo en caso de que sea posible.

Cuando hemos visto la información inicial del error, en el mensaje nos ha indicado qué geometría estaba corrupta. Abriríamos entonces la tabla de atributos, e iríamos al registro indicado en el error. Como los registros comienzan por el “0” en el código, y en la tabla de atributos empiezan por “1”, tendremos que sumarle “1” al registro que indicaba el error. Por ejemplo, si indicaba la geometría “5” iremos al elemento “6” de la tabla de atributos”.

Después de seleccionar el elemento haremos un Zoom a lo seleccionado, y veremos la geometría corrupta en la vista. El siguiente paso será poner la capa en edición y corregir la geometría.

Según lo que nos indicase el mensaje de error inicial intentaremos corregirlo de una u otra forma. Algunas de las posibles formas de corregir las geometrías serían las siguientes:

  • Si es una capa de polígonos, y tenemos una geometría formada por dos puntos, la podremos eliminar y crear un nuevo polígono o podremos añadir más vértices. Lo mismo si está formada por un punto.
  • Si es una capa de polígonos, donde tenemos una geometría multipolígono, y uno de esos polígonos que la forma es realmente un punto o una línea, primero utilizaríamos la herramienta de “Descomponer geometría” y eliminaríamos las partes sobrantes o las corregiríamos.

Una vez corregidas las geometrías no podremos guardar la capa que estamos editando, obligándonos la aplicación a exportar a una nueva capa en el momento de terminar la edición. Con esto, la capa guardada ya se cargará correctamente en la Vista.

Eliminación de las geometrías corruptas

Si queremos directamente eliminar las geometrías corruptas, lo que haremos será marcar la opción “Load corrupt geometries as null” en la pestaña “Advanced”. Después aceptaremos, y ya en la vista pincharemos con el botón secundario sobre la capa activa y le daremos a “Recargar”. De esa forma veremos ya los elementos de la capa en la vista.

El siguiente paso será poner la capa en edición. Después abriremos su tabla de atributos, e iremos al menú Tabla->Propiedades. En la parte de la nueva ventana donde están los distintos campos, iremos al campo GEOMETRY y lo marcaremos como visible, aceptando después. Así, ya en la tabla, si vamos a la última columna veremos que es la que contiene la geometría.

Lo siguiente será poner activo el campo GEOMETRY y ordenar de forma descendente, de forma que en la parte superior veremos los registros que no tienen geometría (tienen su campo GEOMETRY vacío).

Entre los registros que tienen el campo GEOMETRY vacío estarán las geometrías corruptas, pero debemos tener en cuenta que si tenemos más de un registro con el campo GEOMETRY en blanco, es posible que tengamos alguna geometría que es correcta. Por ejemplo, si hemos trabajado previamente con una base de datos, es fácil que haya geometrías nulas en ella, por lo que exportando a SHP dicha base de datos, esos registros se mantendrían y no serían realmente un error. Si solo tenemos una geometría nula en la tabla sí que será la que tiene error.

Al tener la capa en edición, directamente podríamos seleccionar los registros que queremos eliminar en la tabla, y pincharíamos sobre el botón de “Eliminar fila” (también disponible en el menú Tabla), con lo que eliminaríamos las geometrías deseadas.

Finalmente terminaremos edición, obligándonos a guardar como una nueva capa en disco. De esa forma tendremos la capa corregida, sin las geometrías que estaban corruptas.

Categories: OSGeo Planet

gvSIG Team: ‘Just Side’, tool to identify social and environmental injustices in Ibero-America

OSGeo Planet - Wed, 2018-03-28 10:07

A network of Ibero-American universities and companies led by the Portuguese University of Coimbra and in which the gvSIG Association participates, will develop the ‘Just Side‘ tool during the next years, a program based on the ‘geo-law‘ that will identify social and environmental injustices and its possible prevention. This tool to be developed will be made available to the governments of Ibero-American countries.

The project, which has just started now, will study 16 specific cases in territories where policies whose result has been harmful from the economic or environmental point of view for the population have been developed.

To develop ‘Just Side’, territories with difficulty to access essential public services will mainly be studied, places where infrastructures are often built with negative impacts, such as garbage dumps or incinerators.

The program will have a cartographic based solution on which variables will be overlapped, such as income per capita, type of housing, distances to public services or access to means of communication. All the information, territorial and social, will be analyzed through geospatial processes that help in the visualization and detection of problems and patterns. Precisely the gvSIG Association is part of this network as an expert in the development of Geographic Information Systems with open source software.

The future tool will have a double objective: identification of the problems related to territorial injustices and making an open source software solution available for governments, allowing that they can correct these imbalances through appropriate policies in an easy way.

In this tool, the gvSIG Association will work with 40 researchers from the universities of Buenos Aires, Santa Catarina (Brazil), Costa Rica, Santiago de Chile, the Autonomous University of Mexico, Uruguay, and the Spanish University of La Rioja, as well as the Brazilian company Geodereito. For the development of the solution the gvSIG Association will make available the Suite gvSIG, its catalog of open source software solutions for territorial information management.

As an example, in the case of Chile, the network of researchers will evaluate the initiative that the Government will launch on Easter Island, with which it intends to restore the indigenous population of this area, the mythical Rapa Nui, the lands that were snatched from them in the last century.

In this way, through the new tool different ways to make up for historical injustices will be able to be analyzed.

In the case of Portugal, the studies will focus on the reservoirs of the Upper Duero River Basin, both those that are active and those that are intended to be built, in order to analyze levels of unemployment or environmental impacts.

This Ibero-American network, financed by CYTED, and whose work will last until 2021, will be presented on April 20th at the University of Coimbra, as part of a conference where experts on geo-laws and geomatics from Portugal, Spain and Norway specialized in social vulnerability from the territory will be present.

Categories: OSGeo Planet

gvSIG Team: SIGPobla, a successful case study of a Spatial Data Infrastructure in a municipality

OSGeo Planet - Wed, 2018-03-28 07:18

During the 3rd gvSIG Festival there was an interesting presentation about SIGPobla, a successful case study of a Spatial Data Infrastructure in La Pobla de Vallbona municipality.

That presentation dealt with the implementation of the SDI of La Pobla de Vallbona, a municipality that has about 24,000 inhabitants, which required a platform such as gvSIG Online to generate as many geoportals (public and/or private) as they needed in an easy way and without limitations. On the other hand, they needed a mobile application, such as gvSIG Mobile, for Android, for field data gathering… with the aim of carrying out all the municipal inventory.

The SDI of La Pobla de Vallbona is available here:

https://sigpobla.gvsigonline.com/

Here you can watch the video with the presentation:

Categories: OSGeo Planet

Cameron Shorter: What could Open Government learn from us Open Technology folks?

OSGeo Planet - Tue, 2018-03-27 21:27
Despite open government’s best intentions to prioritise collaboration, government bodies consistently duplicate each other’s effort. Collaborating as effectively as open communities is much harder than you’d think.

A number of us “open technologists” have drafted a paper describing the challenges government faces, along with our vision for how to address these. It is being presented as part of Australia’s updated Open Government National Action Plan.

Reading time: 20 minutes (8 pages).

For the technical reader: If you are a technologist and agree with this vision, please add your technical credibility by signing (see below). Diverse support will help sponsors wanting to back its recommendations.
Open letterThis letter is presented on behalf of the citizens, technologists and organisations signed below.

When addressing the updated Open Government National Action Plan, and actions from the plan, we request stakeholders:
  • Acknowledge that the indicators for success are more than just “value for money” and “mitigation of risk”. 
  • Measure and prioritise: 
    • “Effectiveness of collaboration”, 
    • “Sustainability in the face of rapid innovation”, and 
    • “Resilience to monopolistic behaviours”. 
  • Develop an “Open Government Maturity Model” which describes open government goals and the processes required to achieve them.
  • Measure effectiveness at realising open government goals.
  • Arm decision makers with accessible, evidence based research into what works, so they can trust, select and defend collaborative strategies which are often counter-intuitive within traditional hierarchically managed organisations.
  • Use, extend, or create open technologies, in that order:
    1. Use existing open material if it exists;
    2. Otherwise extend and give back;
    3. As a last resort, create your own system.
  • Embrace modular architectures backed by open standards.
  • Prioritise initiatives which can attract and sustain participation from multiple contributors and organisations.
  • Promote collaboration between all levels of government, and between nations.
  • Invest in the communities of the projects you depend upon. Ensure there is funding to maintain a core team. Reduce barriers to entry in order to attract a wide contributor base. Develop indicators for reporting on the success of these investment strategies.
  • Consider strategies to flatten government’s spending cycles, especially for community based projects. 
  • Prioritise agile, iterative development methodologies over “big bang”, “whole of government” purchases.
Background reasoningDemocracy is founded on collaborationDemocratic governments are based upon collaboration. They work on behalf of citizens, for their citizens’ benefit. Based on this social mandate, the Australian government committed to the principles of open government in 2010, and signed up to the international Open Government Declaration in 2015. This declaration emphasises how openness and technology is to be used to make governments more collaborative, transparent, accountable, responsive, effective, innovative, and empowering of citizens.

However, by 2018, government bodies are regularly not collaborating, even though individuals involved want to. Why? Old acquisition processes which prioritise "value for money" and "mitigation of risk" inadvertently cause agencies to duplicate effort. In the digital economy, success indicators additionally include “effectiveness of collaboration”, “sustainability in the face of rapid innovation” and “resilience to monopolistic behaviours”. If governments are to collaborate as effectively as “open” communities, like open source software or Wikipedia, we need to use these additional indicators.
Recommendation 1: Develop an “Open Government Maturity Model” which describes open government goals and the processes required to achieve them.Such a model should draw from open community processes, such as the Apache Foundation’s open source incubation processes.
The allure of “open”In the early days of the “open” movement, Eric Raymond prophesied in The Cathedral and the Bazaar:
“Perhaps in the end the open-source culture will triumph not because cooperation is morally right or software hoarding is morally wrong ... but simply because the closed-source world cannot win an evolutionary arms race with open-source communities that can put orders of magnitude more skilled time into a problem.” Successful open communities have shown it is possible to attract more contributors from outside the organisation than can ever mustered from within.
In the digital economy, collaboration out-competes competition. Principles of the digital economyIn the digital economy, free copying, free tools, and the interconnectivity of the Internet has made it possible to tap into the world’s collective intelligence. This has led to:
  • Exponential information growth;
  • Exceptionally complex systems;
  • Rapid innovation;
  • And on the flip side, rapid obsolescence.
While it will always be tempting to build your own system, any self-built system will likely be out-innovated and become obsolete.
Recommendation 2: Use, Extend, or Create open technologies, in that order:
  1. Use existing open material if it exists;
  2. Otherwise extend and give back;
  3. As a last resort, create your own.
“Open” is just the startWhen adopting open technologies, we embrace “free access” to software, standards, and data. But there is more:
Openness is an enabler. It minimises legal and technical barriers to collaboration and sharing. Sharing ideas spawns more ideas and supercharges innovation. The reciprocity practices prevalent in collaborative communities inspire and empower individuals to contribute what they are passionate about, achieve their full potential, and collectively we all benefit. The “community litmus test”The Apache software foundation, like many open source foundations, emphasise the importance of diverse and sustainable communities for each of their projects. This applies the “wisdom of crowds” to validate the value and viability of each project. We believe governments should develop and apply similar criteria to validate the technical viability and community interest in projects they take on.
Recommendation 3: Prioritise initiatives which can attract and sustain participation from multiple contributors and organisations. “Copying” is not “collaboration”The Australian Digital Service Standard proudly states that it has been “adapted from the UK Government Design Principles”. This statement highlights a flaw in government’s approach to open principles. “Copying” instead of “collaborating” breaks a core principle of information management:
Retain a single point of truth. Government employees should be reaching out to their counterparts to collaboratively harmonise policies, processes, guides, best practices, software and more.
“Government collaboration” is not as good as “open collaboration”Collaboration in the “open” sense involves reciprocity, sharing, peer production, community building, trust, communication, inclusiveness, standards based interoperability, sustainability, and meritocracy.  Everyone involved is empowered to “scratch an itch”, develop an idea, and the community adopts the best ideas. This empowerment is a formula for rapid innovation.
However,
Traditional management views open collaboration as time consuming, imprecise, unreliable, hard to manage, rarely addresses short term objectives, hard to quantify in a business case, and rarely mentioned in acquisition guides. Yet, in a digital economy, collaborative communities are regularly out-innovating and out-competing closed or centrally controlled initiatives. By contrast, Government’s interpretation of collaboration has typically been based on the International Association for Public Participation (IAP2) using a spectrum of:
  • Inform: You will be told;
  • Consult: Your concerns will be considered;
  • Involve: Your concerns will be options;
  • Collaborate: Your advice will be sought;
  • Empower: You will decide what we implement.
There is no mention of co-development. In all these cases, the sponsoring agency still controls the process; still controls the allocation of funds; and still controls the management of labour. Bureaucratic overhead typically hampers contributions from external individuals or agencies. And here we encounter one of the subtle differences between open communities and open government:
Governments currently organise labour through command and control hierarchies while open communities typically coordinate themselves loosely around principles of self-direction, co-development, volunteering and reciprocity. When the Digital Transformation Agency was being launched, Malcolm Turnbull (who is now Prime Minister) stated,
"I'm a great believer in being much more global in our approach, ... we're all dealing with the same problems, pretty much. ...  We want to break down silos, break down all of the inertia that comes from empire building, so that citizens or businesses will have a seamless, straightforward way of dealing with government -- federal, state, or local."The first Open Government National Action Plan focuses at the national level, without mentioning state or local government.
Recommendation 4: Promote collaboration between all levels of government, and between nations. “Open” by itself is of little valueThe Australia’s Digital Services Design Principle 10 states: “Make things open: it makes things better.” As such, agencies have been publishing open datasets and software but have not been evaluating if they are being used effectively.
Making things open and hoping they will be used is like talking into the void and hoping others will hear. It is hit-and-miss. A digital asset only realises its value once it is discovered, and then integrated with other systems. The more widely it is used and extended, the more valuable it becomes.
Recommendation 5: Measure effectiveness at realising open government goals. Loving a community to deathCollaborative projects are susceptible to being “loved to death”. This happens when a project attracts an active user base without attracting matching contributions. The core team becomes overwhelmed, leaving insufficient capacity to cover essential operation and maintenance tasks.
Organisations shouldn’t overload a community they depend upon. As well as being not nice, it is bad business. Successful open projects have worked out how to apply a combination of:
  1. Politely saying “no” to “gifts” of unsupported extra functionality;
  2. Helping users become contributors, either in kind or financially;
  3. Minimising the onboarding effort for both contributors and the project’s core team.
If a sponsoring organisation isn’t ready to act as a good community citizen, actively supporting the long term sustainability of a project, then the sponsor will probably have a disappointing experience. The sponsor will make self-centered, short-term decisions, and won’t get the support required when most needed. The sponsor will likely be better off with proprietary systems, and the open community would be better off without the sponsor.
Attracting communityA team from the University of Massachusetts researching the success characteristics of open source projects found that projects which were successful at startup typically possessed:
  1. A clearly defined vision;
  2. Clear utility;
  3. And leaders who led by doing.
The projects which grew tended to:
  1. Attract larger user communities;
  2. Attract external developers, with half attracting a developer from another country;
  3. Provide fine-scaled task granularity, making it easier for people to contribute;
  4. And often attracted financial backing.
There are two approaches to attracting co-contributors to complex systems:
  1. Design modular systems, with fine-scaled task granularity, minimal ramp-up effort, and attract many contributors.
  2. Cultivate and retain core contributors who contribute across multiple years of involvement.
There is an inverse relationship between episodic and core contributors. Making episodic contributions trivial creates work for the core team, and vise-versa. Key to success is sustaining a core team focused on attracting and simplifying episodic contributions.
Recommendation 6: Invest in the communities of the projects you depend upon. Ensure there is funding to maintain a core team. Reduce barriers to entry in order to attract a wide contributor base. Develop indicators for reporting on the success of these investment strategies. Modularity and standardsA key strategy for managing complexity is to divide large systems into modular subsystems. It means you can improve one module, without impacting the rest of your system. This helps with maintenance, innovation, and keeping up with latest technologies.
Recommendation 7: Embrace modular architectures, backed by open standards. Modular systems include the following advantages:
  • Enable interoperability;
  • Facilitate collaboration;
  • Reduce system complexity;
  • Mitigate risks of obsolescence and vendor lock-in;
  • Facilitate sustained innovation.
Destabilising effects of episodic spendingOpen projects are vulnerable to the destabilising effects of episodic spending.

Organisations are often willing to pay a once-off fee to add extra features to a project, but are reluctant to pay for core project maintenance. Such investment results in high ramp-up costs as developers come on board, and then a loss of expertise when sponsorship ends. Technical debt is created for the new software without resources to maintain it.

Governments are prime culprits of episodic spending. Government budgets are managed around the financial year, with delayed budget approvals, resulting in discretionary spending centered around the last quarter of the year.

Proprietary business models are better structured to handle episodic funding. They can legally restrict software use unless a fee is paid, enabling spreading of development costs over time. Consequently, government’s propensity toward episodic spending inadvertently favours proprietary over open business models.
Recommendation 8: Consider strategies to flatten government’s spending cycles, especially for community based projects. Fragmented spendingGovernment taxes are collected centrally then split between departments, then split between divisions, then split between teams, and so on, until a group is funded to address a requirement. This hierarchical breakdown of budgets is appropriate for funding physical tasks such as building roads or collecting garbage; however, for the implementation of generic software functionality, it is usually more efficient for agencies to pool resources and collaboratively work on a common code base.
Fragmented spending results in narrow, short term solutions instead of solving broad, holistic and long term problems. Think agile instead of “big bang” purchasingIt’s tempting to address “fragmented spending” by aggregating budgets from multiple agencies into a central “whole of government” contract. From an accounting perspective, you’d think that the easiest way to acquire technology is by defining scope, acquiring budget, insource or outsource the work, and then manage the developers implementing the specification.

However due to the complexity of IT, developers and users will continuously provide ideas for improvement. Projects which adopt agile development methodologies, which continuously adjust direction to incorporate feedback, have a track record of producing better quality outcomes than traditional “waterfall” acquisition methodologies prevalent within government.  
Recommendation 9: Prioritise agile, iterative development methodologies over “big bang”, “whole of government” purchases. Chasing funds instead of collaboratorsOpen source communities typically become sustainable and scale by attracting a growing pool of collaborators. Government projects typically become sustainable and gain prominence by attracting funding and “empire building”.  Collaborating and sharing credit with external organisations typically weakens the importance of the individuals and teams. We need to adjust recognition and incentives to reverse this.
Call to ActionWe need to recognise that government agencies are consistently duplicating effort; that government approaches to collaboration have typically been sporadic and unsustainable; and that best practices in open communities exist but are not readily available to government decision-makers.
Recommendation 10: Arm decision makers with accessible, evidence based research into what works, so they can trust, select and defend collaborative strategies which are often counter-intuitive within traditional hierarchically managed organisations. Research and guides should be developed collaboratively, between agencies, nations, organisations and citizens.

We need to be bold enough to challenge widely established practices; we need to be aware of established wisdom; we need to be opportunistic and pragmatic; and we need to have the insight to know when to choose one over the other.
Related Reading
  1. Shorter, Cameron (August 2017). Making GovHack (and Open Government) more impactful.
  2. Ward, Dan (October 2011), Lieutenant Colonel, US Air Force. Acquisition Lessons from a Galaxy Far, Far Away.
  3. United States Assistant Secretary of Defense (Networks & Information, Integration) / DoD Chief Information Officer and the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (May 2011). Open Technology Development: Lessons Learned & Best Practices.
  4. U.S. Public Participation Playbook
  5. Australian Government Digital Transformation Agency. Digital Service Standard.
  6. Australian Government Digital Transformation Agency. Design Principles.
  7. Australian Government Prime Minister and Cabinet. Open Government National Action Plan 2016-18
  8. Waugh, Pia (January 2015). Collaborative innovation in the public service: Game of Thrones style.
SignedIf you are a technologist and agree with this vision, please add your technical credibility by signing. Add a comment below, or email <cameron . shorter AT g m a i l .c o M>. Diverse support will help sponsors wanting to back this vision.

Australia:
  1. Cameron Shorter, Technology Demystifier; spent over a decade consulting to government on implementing Gespatial Open Source Software, Open Standards and Open Data; ex board member of the Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo); mentor in OSGeo Incubation committee; co-author of OSGeo Incubation processes; co-founder of OSGeoLive Open Source project.
  2. Nicholas Gruen, Chair, Open Knowledge Foundation (Australia), CEO of Lateral Economics, Former Chair of the Australian Government 2.0 Taskforce (2009) and of Innovation Australia in 2013-14.
  3. Arjen Lentz, Exec. Director Open Query Pty Ltd; former Community Relations Manager, MySQL AB; co-founder, Open Source Industry Australia, Inc
  4. Lev Lafayette, President, Isocracy Network; former President, Linux Users of Victoria, 2011-2014
  5. Steven De Costa, Steering Group member, CKAN Association (Open Source Data Portal) & Executive Director of Link Digital
  6. Bruce Bannerman, Director, GeoInnovations Pty Ltd; ex IT Manager, Australian Federal Government; Charter Member Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo); Mentor in OSGeo incubation committee; Former voting member, Open Geospatial Consortium Technical Committee.
  7. Stuart Guthrie, Co-CEO, Polonious Pty Ltd, Former President Open Source Industry Australia, Open Source Software developer and business owner. Current business, based on Open Source Software with offices in Australia, the US and the UK. Verticals in Case Management, Industries: Banking, Insurance, Government, Universities and Schools.
  8. Luke Carbis, Director of Product & Innovation at XWP.
  9. Evan Leybourn, CEO, Business Agility Institute.
  10. John Bryant, Principal, Mammoth Geospatial & Co-Chair, Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial and State of the Map Oceania Conference, 2018.
  11. David Collins, Independent Developer, Trilobite Solutions
  12. Alex Leith, Principal Spatial Analyst, Auspatious and Co-Chair, Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial and State of the Map Oceania Conference, 2018
  13. Andrew Pam, President, Linux Users of Victoria 2014-present
Other nationalites:
  1. Brent Wood, Information Delivery Programme Leader, NIWA. Ex Council member, New Zealand Open Source Society (NZOSS), Charter Member Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGEO).
  2. Ivan Minčík, LINZ Spatial IT Solutions Architect. After many years of working for government in Slovakia and 2 yrs of work in New Zealand I am very happy to sign this document.
  3. Dirk Frigne, president Open Source Geospatial Foundation Europe (OSGeo Europe vzw), OSGeo Charter member, Former Vice president of  OSGeo, CEO Geosparc nv.
  4. Jo Cook, Astun Technology, UK, OSGeo advocate, founder and chairman of Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo) UK local chapter, vice chair FOSS4G 2013 international conference (Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial)
  5. Vasile Crăciunescu, researcher Romanian National Meteorological Administration, Open Source Geospatial Foundation board member.
  6. Suchith Anand, founder of Geo4All, the Open Source Geospatial Foundation's network of educational institutions.
  7. Patrick Hogan, NASA WorldWind Project Manager, NASA
  8. Charles Schweik, Professor, School of Public Policy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Text in this document is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Licence.
Categories: OSGeo Planet

Fernando Quadro: Especialização em SIG na UCPel

OSGeo Planet - Tue, 2018-03-27 10:30

A UCPel acaba de lançar o curso de Especialização em Sistemas de Informações Geográficas que busca atender a demanda local e regional, de acordo com as necessidades dos profissionais ligados direta ou indiretamente a esta específica área do conhecimento.

A universidade considera de suma importância o envolvimento da comunidade acadêmica e profissional, de forma mais direta aos gestores do espaço urbano e rural, comprometendo-se com a formação de profissionais preocupados com a meio-ambiente (urbano e rural) e questões de sustentabilidade com vias a melhor qualidade de vida da população e das relações humanas que ocorre nestes ambientes.

O curso é baseado em assuntos que estão em envidência no mercado como Big Data, CAR, entre outros. Abaixo segue as disciplinas que serão abordadas neste curso de pós-graduação:

  • Introdução aos Sistemas de Informações Geográficas
  • Cartografia
  • Ajustamentos
  • Levantamentos Topográficos
  • Levantamentos Geodésicos
  • Sensoriamento Remoto I e II
  • Processamento Digital de Imagens
  • SIG Aplicado I e II
  • Georreferenciamento de Imóveis Rurais
  • Sistemas de Informações Ambientais
  • GEODireito
  • Cartografia Temática
  • Estatística Espacial
  • Banco de Dados Geográfico
  • Publicação de dados espaciais na WEB
  • Big Data e SIG

Se quiser saber mais informações deste curso basta clicar aqui.

Categories: OSGeo Planet
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